Labuan Bulletin of International Business & Finance (LBIBF)


General. The language of the LBIBf is English. The manuscript (excluding footnotes and references) should be typewritten double-spaced on one side of white A4 paper (210 x 297mm) and with a wide margin of at least 3cm on all sides. Each page of the manuscript should be numbered consecutively. An electronic version of the manuscript (preferably in Microsoft Word), should be emailed to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. .

Author Identification. Papers are refereed anonymously, so there should be no identifying marks of any kind, and only the title of the article should appear on the first page. A separate title page should be attached which contain the following information: (i) full title of the manuscript; (ii) names and affiliations of all authors; (iii) an abstract of not more than 200 words; (iv) a maximum of five keywords; (v) a maximum of three JEL classification codes; and (vi) full address (including email, telephone and fax) of the corresponding author.

Footnotes. As far as possible, footnotes should be kept to a minimum. Footnotes should be designated by superscript Arabic numerals in serial order throughout the manuscript. Each footnote should be placed at the bottom of the manuscript page where reference to it is made.

Equations. All equations should be numbered consecutively, and the numbers should be placed in parentheses in the right hand margin. Authors are encouraged to use the following order for parentheses: {[(…)]}.

Figures and Tables. These should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and, where necessary, should include a title (caption). Figures and tables should be provided on separate sheets at the end of the manuscript and their positions indicated in the text. Vertical rules should not be used in tables and horizontal rules should be kept to a minimum. Figures (charts, graphs, or other artwork) should be ready for photographic reproduction or scanning as they cannot be redrawn by the printer.

Citation and References. All references, with complete bibliographic information, are to be placed in alphabetical order, in a list at the end of the paper entitled “References’. Only cited works are to be included in the reference list. All citations should appear in the text using Harvard-style referencing, i.e. author’s name and year of publication in parenthesis, e.g., (Jones and Brown, 2002). If there are more than two authors, the first author should be cited followed by ‘et al.’, e.g., (Brock et al., 2002). The names of all authors, however, will appear in the reference list.

If two or more works by the same author are cited together, the author’s name is followed by the various years of publication arranged in chronological order, e.g., (Azali, 1999, 2000, 2002). Where reference is made to more than one work by the same author published in the same year, identify each citation in the text by addition of a small letter, e.g., (Lim, 2002a); (Lim, 2002b). When several authors are cited, there are to be arranged in chronological order and separated by semicolons, e.g., Hinich, 1982; Brooks, 1992; Hinich and Brooks, 2001.

Copyright. Submission of paper to LBIBf will be taken to imply that it presents original unpublished work and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere at the same time. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain written permission, prior to submission of a paper, to quote from or reproduce copyrighted material. It is further understood that all persons listed as authors have given their approval for the submission of the paper and that any person cited as a source of personal communication has approved such citation.

Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the author for checking. This stage is to be used only to correct errors that may have been introduced during the production process. Prompt return of the corrected proofs, preferably within one week of receipt, will minimize the risk of the paper being held over to a later issue. The publisher reserves the right to charge authors for excessive correction of non-typographical errors. A hard-copy of the Journal will be provided to the corresponding author/author(s). Additional numbers may be purchased if ordered.

Practice Notes. In addition to standard articles, the LBIBf will also consider shorter items which report on single issues of practice, summarize research work in progress, or give a digest of research findings. These must not exceed 2,500 words and should follow the conventions given above.